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Glade project files are XML formatted GtkBuilder files. The connection to the source code is established by signals. Numerous languages are supported, I will use Python here.
There are plenty of tutorials and docs around that are not or only partly working or valid due to recent development progress (GTK+ and Python from 2.x to 3.x) but for the most part they are a good start (see links below).
I attempt to keep this basic tutorial up to date (Python 3.5.2 (3.6 just hit my machine and there aren't any problems so far but I will have a closer look on the examples) and Glade 3.20.0).
Directory of example files: listings
Of course GTK+ elements can be directly constructed in the source code. It is also possible to use both ways simultaneously or replace one with the other during development process.
The fact that Glade supports various programming languages it may also be possible to create applications in different programming languages using the same graphical interface.
Interaction between other applications